Trasplante de órganos - desafíos éticos y jurídicos | Organ Transplantation - Ethical and Legal Challenges

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Trasplante de órganos - desafíos éticos y jurídicos | Organ Transplantation - Ethical and Legal Challenges

Este curso se imparte en español con subtítulos en inglés, y tanto el material adicional como los ejercicios del curso se ofrecerán en español e inglés. / This course will be taught in Spanish with English subtitles; the required readings as well as the quizzes and other evaluation materials will be provided in both languages.





Desde que en 1954 se realizara el primer trasplante exitoso de un órgano, la cirugía de trasplantes se ha desarrollado espectacularmente brindando esperanza y calidad de vida a muchos enfermos. Mientras esas técnicas y posibilidades terapéuticas avanzan, persisten sin embargo muchos interrogantes sobre el modo en el que los órganos pueden obtenerse lícitamente. Algunos de esos dilemas nos acompañan desde siempre, otros son suscitados por la aparición de fenómenos novedosos como el turismo de trasplantes, las posibilidades que ofrece la donación tras la muerte cardiocirculatoria o los descubrimientos sobre las funciones fisiológicas remanentes en los pacientes diagnosticados en muerte cerebral. En la inmensa mayoría de los países no se pueden comprar y vender órganos. ¿Por qué? A pesar de que muchas personas siguen muriendo a la espera de recibir un órgano, en ningún país se confiscan los órganos de las personas fallecidas. ¿Por qué? ¿Pueden donar los menores? ¿Debemos prescindir de la conocida como “regla del donante cadáver” y permitir la eutanasia para la donación? ¿Con qué límites? ¿De qué manera influye la potencial condición de donante de un órgano en los cuidados que se proporcionan al final de la vida? ¿Cómo evitar el conflicto de intereses entre quienes velan por la vida de los futuros receptores de un órgano y quienes aún se afanan por cuidar a quien va a fallecer de manera irremisible e inminente?



En este curso nos adentraremos en el análisis de ésas y otras cuestiones, pero también introduciremos los nuevos desafíos que para la ética y el Derecho plantean trasplantes novedosos así como la discusión en torno a los criterios de justa distribución de los órganos

 

The first successful organ transplantation was performed in 1954. Since then, the technique has evolved tremendously, giving hope and increased quality of life to many patients around the world. While the technology and drugs advance, several controversies persist regarding the way in which organs may be obtained. Some of these dilemmas arose on the very first day in which organs’ transplantation originated; others have emerged as a result of new phenomena such as transplantation tourism, the new possibilities brought by donation after cardio-circulatory death, or increasing knowledge about the remaining physiological functions detected in patients pronounced as brain dead. Almost all countries in the world forbid the selling of organs. Why? Although many people die while on the waiting lists, in no country does the Government confiscate cadaveric organs. Why? May minors be organ donors? Should we abandon the so-called “dead donor rule” and allow “organ-donation euthanasia”? How does the potential condition of becoming a donor influence the administration of end-of-life care? How should we avoid the eventual conflict of interests between those who care for the life of future recipients of organs and those who are in charge of the dying patient-eventual-donor? In this course we will explore the answers to these questions, and we will also engage in the assessment of the more recent challenges posed by novel transplantation techniques, and, albeit briefly, in the discussion regarding the fair distribution of organs. 


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Starts : 2017-03-28

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