# Courses tagged with "International development" (125)

This course covers the following topics: models of manufacturing systems, including transfer lines and flexible manufacturing systems; calculation of performance measures, including throughput, in-process inventory, and meeting production commitments; real-time control of scheduling; effects of machine failure, set-ups, and other disruptions on system performance.

This course covers basic topics in autonomous marine vehicles, focusing mainly on software and algorithms for autonomous decision making (autonomy) by underwater vehicles operating in the ocean environments, autonomously adapting to the environment for improved sensing performance. It will introduce students to underwater acoustic communication environment, as well as the various options for undersea navigation, both crucial to the operation of collaborative undersea networks for environmental sensing. Sensors for acoustic, biological and chemical sensing by underwater vehicles and their integration with the autonomy system for environmentally adaptive undersea mapping and observation will be covered. The subject will have a significant lab component, involving the use of the MOOS-IvP autonomy software infrastructure for developing integrated sensing, modeling and control solutions for a variety of ocean observation problems, using simulation environments and a field testbed with small autonomous surface craft and underwater vehicles operated on the Charles River.

In this course the fundamentals of fluid mechanics are developed in the context of naval architecture and ocean science and engineering. The various topics covered are: Transport theorem and conservation principles, Navier-Stokes' equation, dimensional analysis, ideal and potential flows, vorticity and Kelvin's theorem, hydrodynamic forces in potential flow, D'Alembert's paradox, added-mass, slender-body theory, viscous-fluid flow, laminar and turbulent boundary layers, model testing, scaling laws, application of potential theory to surface waves, energy transport, wave/body forces, linearized theory of lifting surfaces, and experimental project in the towing tank or propeller tunnel.

This subject was originally offered in Course 13 (Department of Ocean Engineering) as 13.021. In 2005, ocean engineering became part of Course 2 (Department of Mechanical Engineering), and this subject was renumbered 2.20.

This course discusses the selection and evaluation of commercial and naval ship power and propulsion systems. It will cover the analysis of propulsors, prime mover thermodynamic cycles, propeller-engine matching, propeller selection, waterjet analysis, and reviews alternative propulsors. The course also investigates thermodynamic analyses of Rankine, Brayton, Diesel, and Combined cycles, reduction gears and integrated electric drive. Battery operated vehicles and fuel cells are also discussed. The term project requires analysis of alternatives in propulsion plant design for given physical, performance, and economic constraints. Graduate students complete different assignments and exams.

This course discusses the selection and evaluation of commercial and naval ship power and propulsion systems. It will cover the analysis of propulsors, prime mover thermodynamic cycles, propeller-engine matching, propeller selection, waterjet analysis, and reviews alternative propulsors. The course also investigates thermodynamic analyses of Rankine, Brayton, Diesel, and Combined cycles, reduction gears and integrated electric drive. Battery operated vehicles and fuel cells are also discussed. The term project requires analysis of alternatives in propulsion plant design for given physical, performance, and economic constraints. Graduate students complete different assignments and exams.

This course is designed to introduce you to the study of Calculus. You will learn concrete applications of how calculus is used and, more importantly, why it works. Calculus is not a new discipline; it has been around since the days of Archimedes. However, Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz, two 17th-century European mathematicians concurrently working on the same intellectual discovery hundreds of miles apart, were responsible for developing the field as we know it today. This brings us to our first question, what is today's Calculus? In its simplest terms, calculus is the study of functions, rates of change, and continuity. While you may have cultivated a basic understanding of functions in previous math courses, in this course you will come to a more advanced understanding of their complexity, learning to take a closer look at their behaviors and nuances. In this course, we will address three major topics: limits, derivatives, and integrals, as well as study their respective foundations and a…

This course is the second installment of Single-Variable Calculus. In Part I (MA101 [1]), we studied limits, derivatives, and basic integrals as a means to understand the behavior of functions. While this end goal remains the same, we will now focus on adapting what we have learned to applications. By the end of this course, you should have a solid understanding of functions and how they behave. You should also be able to apply the concepts we have learned in both Parts I and II of Single-Variable Calculus to a variety of situations. We will begin by revisiting and building upon what we know about the integral. We will then explore the mathematical applications of integration before delving into the second major topic of this course: series. The course will conclude with an introduction to differential equations. [1] http:///courses/ma101/…

Differential equations are, in addition to a topic of study in mathematics, the main language in which the laws and phenomena of science are expressed. In its most basic sense, a differential equation is an expression that describes how a system changes from one moment of time to another, or from one point in space to another. When working with differential equations, the ultimate goal is to move from a microscopic view of relevant physics to a macroscopic view of the behavior of a system as a whole. Let’s look at a simple differential equation. From previous math and physics courses, we know that a car that is constantly accelerating in the x-direction, for example, obeys the equation d2x/dt2 = a, where a is the applied acceleration. This equation has two derivations with respect to time, so it is a second-order differential equation; because it has derivations with respect to only one variable (in this example, time), it is known as an ordinary differential equation, or an ODE. Let’s say t…

This survey chemistry course is designed to introduce students to the world of chemistry. Chemistry was born in ancient Egypt, when the principles of chemistry were first identified, studied, and applied in order to extract metal from ores, make alcoholic beverages, glaze pottery, turn fat into soap, and much more. What began as a quest to build better weapons or create potions capable of ensuring everlasting life has since become the foundation of modern science. Take a look around you: chemistry makes up almost everything you touch, see, and feel, from the shampoo you used this morning to the plastic container that holds your lunch. In this course, we will study chemistry from the ground up, learning the basics of the atom and its behavior. We will apply this knowledge to understand the chemical properties of matter and the changes and reactions that take place in all types of matter.

This course will survey physics concepts and their respective applications. It is intended as a basic introduction to the current physical understanding of our universe. Originally part of “Natural Philosophy,” the first scientific studies were conducted after Thales of Miletus established a rational basis for the understanding of natural phenomena circa 600 BCE. One of the Seven Sages of Greek philosophy, Thales sought to identify the substances that make up the natural world and explain how they produce the physical phenomena we observe. Prior to Thales, humans had explained events by attributing supernatural causes to them; his work represents the very beginning of scientific analysis. The Scientific Method used today builds on this early foundation, but adds the essential underpinnings of evidence based on experiments or observation. Briefly, the modern scientific method involves forming a hypothesis about the cause of a general phenomenon, using that hypothetical model to predict the outc…

The physics of the Universe appears to be dominated by the effects of four fundamental forces: gravity, electromagnetism, and weak and strong nuclear forces. These control how matter, energy, space, and time interact to produce our physical world. All other forces, such as the force you exert in standing up, are ultimately derived from these fundamental forces. We have direct daily experience with two of these forces: gravity and electromagnetism. Consider, for example, the everyday sight of a person sitting on a chair. The force holding the person on the chair is gravitational, while that gravitational force is balanced by material forces that “push up” to keep the individual in place, and these forces are the direct result of electromagnetic forces on the nanoscale. On a larger stage, gravity holds the celestial bodies in their orbits, while we see the Universe by the electromagnetic radiation (light, for example) with which it is filled. The electromagnetic force also makes possible the a…

Multivariable Calculus is an expansion of Single-Variable Calculus in that it extends single variable calculus to higher dimensions. You may find that these courses share many of the same basic concepts, and that Multivariable Calculus will simply extend your knowledge of functions to functions of several variables. The transition from single variable relationships to many variable relationships is not as simple as it may seem; you will find that multi-variable functions, in some cases, will yield counter-intuitive results. The structure of this course very much resembles the structure of Single-Variable Calculus I and II. We will begin by taking a fresh look at limits and continuity. With functions of many variables, you can approach a limit from many different directions. We will then move on to derivatives and the process by which we generalize them to higher dimensions. Finally, we will look at multiple integrals, or integration over regions of space as opposed to intervals. The goal of Mu…

This course will introduce you to the field of mechanical engineering and the relationships between physics, mathematics, communications, and sciences which inform the study, design, and manufacture of mechanical products and systems. The course is divided into four units. In the first unit, you will learn how mechanical engineering is broadly defined, what mechanical engineers do, and what technical capabilities they have. We will also review some basic principles from mathematics and physics that you will apply in any discipline of engineering. In the second unit, you will learn about the ethical considerations and technical communication skills necessary for engineering work. You will revisit these issues in more detail in several courses within the Mechanical Engineering curriculum. The third unit focuses on computational tools for engineering problems. In Unit 3 you will learn about a specific open source computational environment (Scilab) and the application of that environment to some com…

Mechanics studies how forces affect bodies in motionhow, for example, a bullet is fired from a gun or a top is set in motion by the flick of a wrist. As an engineer, you will find mechanics of vital importance to any field you choose to pursue. Whether you are designing a bridge or implementing an electrical power unit for an elevator, you will need to know how to determine which forces can be applied to a body without causing it to break, what happens when bodies collide, how an object moves when different forces are applied to it, and so on. This course will introduce you to the core concepts of mechanics that will enable you to answer these questions as you strive to design, test, and manufacture safe and reliable products. While most universities split introductory mechanics into two courses, with one devoted to statics and the other to solids, this course will introduce you to both areas. You will begin by learning about staticsobjects that are not accelerating (in other words, objects that are…

There are many different ways that you can go about solving engineering problems. One of the most important methods is energy analysis. Energy is a physical property that allows work of any kind to be done; without it, there would be no motion, no heat, and no life. You wouldn’t be able to get out of bed in the morning, but it wouldn’t matter, because there would be no sun. Without energy, our world would not exist as it does. Thermodynamics is the study of energy and its transfers though work. It is the link between heat and mechanical exertion. Once you have a solid grasp on thermodynamic concepts, you should be able to understand why certain mechanisms (such as engines and boilers) work the way they do, determine how much work they can put out, and know how to optimize these power systems. A thorough understanding of thermodynamics is crucial to any career that focuses on HVAC systems, car engines, or renewable energy technology. This course will focus on the fundamentals of thermod…

CAD, or computer-aided design, is a powerful modeling tool that technical professionals use. With CAD, architects can draw up building plans and engineers can develop component and system designs. Some CAD programs even allow users to perform stress analysis, demonstrating how well a proposed structure will fare when put to use. For example, when does a load become too big? How much weight can be put onto a bridge before it becomes structurally unsound? Using CAD, professionals can create precise engineering drawings in both 2- and 3-D, complete with dimensions and specifications, in a neat and readable format. This modeling method has taken design to a whole new level of efficiency and accuracy. We are fortunate to be engineers working in the current eraone of computers, technology, and ease of precision. Without CAD, we would have to draft (or draw up) design blueprints by hand, which can be tedious and time-consuming. With CAD, however, we can generate accurate 2-D and 3-D drawings, scale…

You may think at first that the words “fluid” and “mechanics” should not go together. However, the ways in which fluids (gases and liquids and a few other materials) respond to forces, exert forces, and move from one place to another (their mechanics) are crucially important to many aspects of our experience and our ability to build tools. Consider, for example, the following areas in which fluid mechanics play an important, if not fundamental, role: Meteorology and ocean dynamics (tsunamis, hurricanes, and tornados) Fluid flow within living systems (blood flow, lymph flow, air flow) Hydraulic machinery (jacks, pumps, lifts, steering mechanisms) Chemical processing and piping (pumps, reactors, separators, pipelines) Turbomachinery (jet engines, power plants) Aeronautical and ship machinery (airplanes, helicopters, boats and ships) In this course you will first learn about the definition of a fluid and the properties of a fluid, such as density, compressibility, and viscosity. You wil…

Dynamics is a sub-branch of the general field of study known as Mechanics. It is very closely related toand often combined withthe study of Statics, which you encountered in ME102: Mechanics I [1]. In both Statics and Dynamics, we use Newton’s 2nd Law: F = ma. In Statics, the sum of the applied forces is always zero, thus making the acceleration zero. This was very important to the structures studied in Statics. Catastrophe generally results when structures (like bridges and buildings) accelerate. Very likely you are quite pleasedeven if you do not realize it every timewhen you cross a bridge that does not accelerate while you are on it, and we have Newton’s First Law to thank for it. Newton’s First Law states that objects will continue to do what they are doing unless unbalanced forces make them do otherwise. This law includes the law equilibrium condition that the moments will also sum to zero, and that there will thus be no rotational acceleration. In Dynamics, the sum of the forces…

This self-contained course presents a sampling of the fields of Materials Engineering and Materials Science. This course is intended primarily for engineering students who are not planning to major in either Materials Engineering or Materials Science. We will focus primarily on the concerns of the materials engineerthe person interested in choosing materials to make a finished product. This selection is determined by compromises among material properties, ease of fabrication, and cost. In contrast, the materials scientist is concerned with understanding the relationships between material properties and the internal structure of a materialthat is, atomic bonding, arrangements of atoms, grain structure, and other microscopically observable features. We leave most of these associations to advanced courses, which will use more chemistry and physics than needed for this course. The course is divided into four units: Unit 1: Ways That Materials Can Fail What Can Go Wrong? Unit 2: Classes of Engineering Mate…

Heat transfer is the thermal energy in transit due to a spatial temperature difference. The topic of heat transfer has enormous applications in mechanical engineering, ranging from cooling of microelectronics to design of jet engines and operations of nuclear power plants. In this course, you will learn about what heat transfer is, what governs the rate of heat transfer, and why heat transfer is so important. You will also learn about the three major modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Heat conduction is the transport of heat through a solid body, by vibrations of molecules or in the case of electrical conductors, by movement of electrons from one molecule to another. Heat convection is a process by which heat is transferred through a fluid by motion of fluid. Thermal radiation is the transport of energy between two bodies by electromagnetic waves. In addition to the three main modes of heat transfer, you will also learn about heat transfer during phase changes (boiling and conden…

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