# Courses tagged with "Mathematics" (77)

This course is the second installment of Single-Variable Calculus. In Part I (MA101 [1]), we studied limits, derivatives, and basic integrals as a means to understand the behavior of functions. While this end goal remains the same, we will now focus on adapting what we have learned to applications. By the end of this course, you should have a solid understanding of functions and how they behave. You should also be able to apply the concepts we have learned in both Parts I and II of Single-Variable Calculus to a variety of situations. We will begin by revisiting and building upon what we know about the integral. We will then explore the mathematical applications of integration before delving into the second major topic of this course: series. The course will conclude with an introduction to differential equations. [1] http:///courses/ma101/…

In this course, you will study basic algebraic operations and concepts, as well as the structure and use of algebra. This includes solving algebraic equations, factoring algebraic expressions, working with rational expressions, and graphing linear equations. You will apply these skills to solve real-world problems (word problems). Each unit will have its own application problems, depending on the concepts you have been exposed to. This course is also intended to provide you with a strong foundation for intermediate algebra and beyond. It will begin with a review of some math concepts formed in pre-algebra, such as ordering operations and simplifying simple algebraic expressions, to get your feet wet. You will then build on these concepts by learning more about functions, graphing of functions, evaluation of functions, and factorization. You will spend time on the rules of exponents and their applications in distribution of multiplication over addition/subtraction. This course provides students the opportuni…

The study of “abstract algebra” grew out of an interest in knowing how attributes of sets of mathematical objects behave when one or more properties we associate with real numbers are restricted. For example, we are familiar with the notion that real numbers are closed under multiplication and division (that is, if we add or multiply a real number, we get a real number). But if we divide one integer by another integer, we may not get an integer as a resultmeaning that integers are not closed under division. We also know that if we take any two integers and multiply them in either order, we get the same resulta principle known as the commutative principle of multiplication for integers. By contrast, matrix multiplication is not generally commutative. Students of abstract algebra are interested in these sorts of properties, as they want to determine which properties hold true for any set of mathematical objects under certain operations and which types of structures result when we perform certain o…

Statistics is the science that turns data into information and information into knowledge. This class covers applied statistical methodology from an analysis-of-data viewpoint. Topics covered include frequency distributions; measures of location; mean, median, mode; measures of dispersion; variance; graphic presentation; elementary probability; populations and samples; sampling distributions; one sample univariate inference problems, and two sample problems; categorical data; regression and correlation; and analysis of variance. Use of computers in data analysis is also explored. This course contains the Winter 2013 Statistics 250 Workbook and Interactive Lecture Notes. Fall 2011 Statistics 250 materials (syllabus, lectures, and workbooks) are also available for download. Course Level: Undergraduate This Work, Statistics 250 - Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis, by Brenda Gunderson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.

This course will introduce you to the fundamentals of probability theory and random processes. The theory of probability was originally developed in the 17th century by two great French mathematicians, Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat, to understand gambling. Today, the theory of probability has found many applications in science and engineering. Engineers use data from manufacturing processes to sample characteristics of product quality in order to improve the products being produced. Pharmaceutical companies perform experiments to determine the effect of a drug on humans and use the results to make decisions about treatment of illnesses, while economists observe the state of the economy over periods of time and use the information to forecast the economic future. In this course, you will learn the basic terminology and concepts of probability theory, including random experiments, sample spaces, discrete distribution, probability density function, expected values, and conditional probability. You will al…

This course is designed to introduce you to the study of calculus. You will learn concrete applications of how calculus is used and, more importantly, why it works. Calculus is not a new discipline; it has been around since the days of Archimedes. However, Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz, two seventeenth-century European mathematicians concurrently working on the same intellectual discovery hundreds of miles apart, were responsible for developing the field as we know it today. This brings us to our first question, what is today’s calculus? In its simplest terms, calculus is the study of functions, rates of change, and continuity. While you may have cultivated a basic understanding of functions in previous math courses, in this course you will come to a more advanced understanding of their complexity, learning to take a closer look at their behaviors and nuances. In this course, we will address three major topics: limits, derivatives, and integrals, as well as study their respective foundations and appl…

Linear algebra is the study of vector spaces and linear mappings between them. In this course, we will begin by reviewing topics you learned in Linear Algebra I, starting with linear equations, followed by a review of vectors and matrices in the context of linear equations. The review will refresh your knowledge of the fundamentals of vectors and of matrix theory, how to perform operations on matrices, and how to solve systems of equations. After the review, you should be able to understand complex numbers from algebraic and geometric viewpoints to the fundamental theorem of algebra. Next, we will focus on eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Today, these have applications in such diverse fields as computer science (Google's PageRank algorithm), physics (quantum mechanics, vibration analysis, etc.), economics (equilibrium states of Markov models), and more. We will end with the spectral theorem, which provides a decomposition of the vector space on which operators act, and singular-value decomposition, w…

This course is a continuation of Abstract Algebra I: we will revisit structures like groups, rings, and fields as well as mappings like homomorphisms and isomorphisms. We will also take a look at ring factorization, which will lead us to a discussion of the solutions of polynomials over abstracted structures instead of numbers sets. We will end the section on rings with a discussion of general lattices, which have both set and logical properties, and a special type of lattice known as Boolean algebra, which plays an important role in probability. We will also visit an important topic in mathematics that you have likely encountered already: vector spaces. Vector spaces are central to the study of linear algebra, but because they are extended groups, group theory and geometric methods can be used to study them. Later in this course, we will take a look at more advanced topics and consider several useful theorems and counting methods. We will end the course by studying Galois theoryone of the most im…

Mathematics is about structure, about reasoning, and about modeling. This course braids these three threads together. Mathematical logic began as the study of the reasoning used in mathematics, but it turns out to be useful in describing the mathematical concept of structure and in modeling automated reasoningthat is, modeling computation. The logical approach to structure gives an alternate perspective on such other mathematical subjects as combinatorics and abstract algebra. This, for the most part, is described by the area of model theory, which is the focus of Unit 1. In Unit 2, we will look at modeling computation. The central fact of these models, from a logical standpoint, is that once we can handle a computation as a definable mathematical object, we can prove that certain computations are impossible. The most famous such proof is Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorem, showing that it is impossible to compute truth in a system sufficiently strong to describe natural number arithmetic.

This course will introduce you to a number of statistical tools and techniques that are routinely used by modern statisticians for a wide variety of applications. First, we will review basic knowledge and skills that you learned in MA121: Introduction to Statistics [1]. Units 2-5 will introduce you to new ways to design experiments and to test hypotheses, including multiple and nonlinear regression and nonparametric statistics. You will learn to apply these methods to building models to analyze complex, multivariate problems. You will also learn to write scripts to carry out these analyses in R, a powerful statistical programming language. The last unit is designed to give you a grand tour of several advanced topics in applied statistics. [1] http://www.saylor.org/courses/ma121/…

Partial differential equations (PDEs) describe the relationships among the derivatives of an unknown function with respect to different independent variables, such as time and position. For example, the heat equation can be used to describe the change in heat distribution along a metal rod over time. PDEs arise as part of the mathematical modeling of problems connected to different branches of science, such as physics, biology, and chemistry. In these fields, experiment and observation provide information about the connections between rates of change of an important quantity, such as heat, with respect to different variables. These connections must be exploited to find an explicit way of calculating the unknown quantity, given the values of the independent variables that is, to derive certain laws of nature. While we do not know why partial differential equations provide what has been termed the “unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in the natural sciences” (the title of a 1960 paper by physicist…

This course is a continuation of MA001: Beginning Algebra [1]. Algebra allows us to formulate real-world problems in an abstract mathematical term or equation. These equations can then be solved by using techniques you will learn in this course. For example, if I can ride my bicycle at 5 miles per hour and I live 12 miles from work, how long will it take me to get to work? Or, suppose I am a pitcher for the St. Louis Cardinals and my fast ball is 95 miles per hour, how much time does the hitter have to react to the baseball? And, can you explain why an object thrown up into the air will come back down? If so, can you tell how long it will take for the object to hit the ground? These are all examples of problems that can be stated as an algebraic equation and then solved. In this course you will study compound inequalities and solve systems of linear equations. You will then study radicals and rational exponents, followed by quadratic equations and techniques used to solve these equations. Finally, you will…

Real Analysis II is the sequel to Saylor’s Real Analysis I, and together these two courses constitute the foundations of real analysis in mathematics. In this course, you will build on key concepts presented in Real Analysis I, particularly the study of the real number system and real-valued functions defined on all or part (usually intervals) of the real number line. The main objective of MA241 [1] was to introduce you to the concept and theory of differential and integral calculus as well as the mathematical analysis techniques that allow us to understand and solve various problems at the heart of sciencenamely, questions in the fields of physics, economics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. In this course, you will build on these techniques with the goal of applying them to the solution of more complex mathematical problems. As long as a problem can be modeled as a functional relation between two quantities, each of which can be expressed as a set of real numbers, the techniques used for real-value…

Precalculus I is designed to prepare you for Precalculus II, Calculus, Physics, and higher math and science courses. In this course, the main focus is on five types of functions: linear, polynomial, rational, exponential, and logarithmic. In accompaniment with these functions, you will learn how to solve equations and inequalities, graph, find domains and ranges, combine functions, and solve a multitude of real-world applications. In this course, you will not only be learning new algebraic techniques that are necessary for other math and science courses, but you will be learning to become a critical thinker. You will be able to determine what is the best approach to take such as numerical, graphical, or algebraic to solve a problem given particular information. Then you will investigate and solve the problem, interpret the answer, and determine if it is reasonable. A few examples of applications in this course are determining compound interest, growth of bacteria, decay of a radioactive substance, and the…

This course is taught in French Vous voulez comprendre l'arithmétique ? Vous souhaitez découvrir une application des mathématiques à la vie quotidienne ? Ce cours est fait pour vous ! De niveau première année d'université, vous apprendrez les bases de l'arithmétique (division euclidienne, théorème de Bézout, nombres premiers, congruence). Vous vous êtes déjà demandé comment sont sécurisées les transactions sur Internet ? Vous découvrirez les bases de la cryptographie, en commençant par les codes les plus simples pour aboutir au code RSA. Le code RSA est le code utilisé pour crypter les communications sur internet. Il est basé sur de l'arithmétique assez simple que l'on comprendra en détail. Vous pourrez en plus mettre en pratique vos connaissances par l'apprentissage de notions sur le langage de programmation Python. Vous travaillerez à l'aide de cours écrits et de vidéos, d'exercices corrigés en vidéos, des quiz, des travaux pratiques. Le cours est entièrement gratuit !

This topic will add a ton of tools to your algebraic toolbox. You'll be able to multiply any expression and learn to factor a bunch a well. This will allow you to solve a broad array of problems in algebra. Factoring Special Products. Example 1: Factoring difference of squares. Factoring difference of squares 1. Example 2: Factoring difference of squares. Factoring difference of squares 2. Factoring to produce difference of squares. Factoring difference of squares 3. Example: Factoring perfect square trinomials. Example: Factoring a fourth degree expression. Example: Factoring special products. Multiplying Monomials. Dividing Monomials. Multiplying and Dividing Monomials 1. Multiplying and Dividing Monomials 2. Multiplying and Dividing Monomials 3. Monomial Greatest Common Factor. Multiplying binomials word problem. FOIL for multiplying binomials. Multiplying Binomials with Radicals. Multiplying binomials example 1. FOIL method for multiplying binomials example 2. Square a Binomial. Special Products of Binomials. Multiplying binomials to get difference of squares. Squaring a binomial. Multiplying expressions 0.5. Squaring a binomial example 2. Classic multiplying binomials video. Multiplying expressions 1. Factoring and the Distributive Property 3. Factoring linear binomials. Factoring linear binomials. Factoring and the Distributive Property. Factoring and the Distributive Property 2. Factor expressions using the GCF. Factoring quadratic expressions. Examples: Factoring simple quadratics. Example 1: Factoring quadratic expressions. Factoring polynomials 1. Example 1: Factoring trinomials with a common factor. Factoring polynomials 2. Factor by Grouping and Factoring Completely. Example: Basic grouping. Example 1: Factoring by grouping. Example 2: Factoring by grouping. Example 3: Factoring by grouping. Example 4: Factoring by grouping. Example 5: Factoring by grouping. Example 6: Factoring by grouping. Factoring polynomials by grouping. Factoring quadratics with two variables. Factoring quadratics with two variables example. Factoring polynomials with two variables. Terms coefficients and exponents in a polynomial. Interesting Polynomial Coefficient Problem. Polynomials1. Polynomials 2. Evaluating a polynomial at a given value. Simplify a polynomial. Adding Polynomials. Example: Adding polynomials with multiple variables. Addition and Subtraction of Polynomials. Adding and Subtracting Polynomials 1. Adding and Subtracting Polynomials 2. Adding and Subtracting Polynomials 3. Subtracting Polynomials. Subtracting polynomials with multiple variables. Adding and subtracting polynomials. Multiplying Monomials by Polynomials. Multiplying Polynomials. Multiplying Polynomials 3. More multiplying polynomials. Multiplying polynomials. Polynomial Division. Polynomial divided by monomial. Dividing multivariable polynomial with monomial. Dividing polynomials 1. Dividing polynomials with remainders. Synthetic Division. Synthetic Division Example 2. Why Synthetic Division Works. Factoring Sum of Cubes. Difference of Cubes Factoring. Algebraic Long Division. Algebra II: Simplifying Polynomials. Factoring Special Products. Example 1: Factoring difference of squares. Factoring difference of squares 1. Example 2: Factoring difference of squares. Factoring difference of squares 2. Factoring to produce difference of squares. Factoring difference of squares 3. Example: Factoring perfect square trinomials. Example: Factoring a fourth degree expression. Example: Factoring special products. Multiplying Monomials. Dividing Monomials. Multiplying and Dividing Monomials 1. Multiplying and Dividing Monomials 2. Multiplying and Dividing Monomials 3. Monomial Greatest Common Factor. Multiplying binomials word problem. FOIL for multiplying binomials. Multiplying Binomials with Radicals. Multiplying binomials example 1. FOIL method for multiplying binomials example 2. Square a Binomial. Special Products of Binomials. Multiplying binomials to get difference of squares. Squaring a binomial. Multiplying expressions 0.5. Squaring a binomial example 2. Classic multiplying binomials video. Multiplying expressions 1. Factoring and the Distributive Property 3. Factoring linear binomials. Factoring linear binomials. Factoring and the Distributive Property. Factoring and the Distributive Property 2. Factor expressions using the GCF. Factoring quadratic expressions. Examples: Factoring simple quadratics. Example 1: Factoring quadratic expressions. Factoring polynomials 1. Example 1: Factoring trinomials with a common factor. Factoring polynomials 2. Factor by Grouping and Factoring Completely. Example: Basic grouping. Example 1: Factoring by grouping. Example 2: Factoring by grouping. Example 3: Factoring by grouping. Example 4: Factoring by grouping. Example 5: Factoring by grouping. Example 6: Factoring by grouping. Factoring polynomials by grouping. Factoring quadratics with two variables. Factoring quadratics with two variables example. Factoring polynomials with two variables. Terms coefficients and exponents in a polynomial. Interesting Polynomial Coefficient Problem. Polynomials1. Polynomials 2. Evaluating a polynomial at a given value. Simplify a polynomial. Adding Polynomials. Example: Adding polynomials with multiple variables. Addition and Subtraction of Polynomials. Adding and Subtracting Polynomials 1. Adding and Subtracting Polynomials 2. Adding and Subtracting Polynomials 3. Subtracting Polynomials. Subtracting polynomials with multiple variables. Adding and subtracting polynomials. Multiplying Monomials by Polynomials. Multiplying Polynomials. Multiplying Polynomials 3. More multiplying polynomials. Multiplying polynomials. Polynomial Division. Polynomial divided by monomial. Dividing multivariable polynomial with monomial. Dividing polynomials 1. Dividing polynomials with remainders. Synthetic Division. Synthetic Division Example 2. Why Synthetic Division Works. Factoring Sum of Cubes. Difference of Cubes Factoring. Algebraic Long Division. Algebra II: Simplifying Polynomials.

What ratios and proportions are. Using them to solve problems in the real world. Ratio problem with basic algebra (new HD). Writing proportions. Writing proportions. Find an Unknown in a Proportion. Find an Unknown in a Proportion 2. Proportions 1. Proportions 2 exercise examples. Proportions 2. Constructing proportions to solve application problems. Constructing proportions to solve application problems. The Golden Ratio. Advanced ratio problems. More advanced ratio problem--with Algebra (HD version). Another Take on the Rate Problem. Alternate Solution to Ratio Problem (HD Version). Mountain height word problem. Ratio problem with basic algebra (new HD). Writing proportions. Writing proportions. Find an Unknown in a Proportion. Find an Unknown in a Proportion 2. Proportions 1. Proportions 2 exercise examples. Proportions 2. Constructing proportions to solve application problems. Constructing proportions to solve application problems. The Golden Ratio. Advanced ratio problems. More advanced ratio problem--with Algebra (HD version). Another Take on the Rate Problem. Alternate Solution to Ratio Problem (HD Version). Mountain height word problem.

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