Courses tagged with "Saylor.org" (66)

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1 votes
Saylor.org Free Closed [?] Life Sciences Biology

This introductory course in biology starts at the microscopic level, with molecules and cells. Before we get into the specifics of cell structure and behavior, however, let’s take a cursory glance at the field of biology more generally. Though biology as we know it today is a relatively new field, we have been studying living things since the beginning of recorded history. The invention of the microscope was the turning point in the history of biology; it paved the way for scientists to discover bacteria and other tiny organisms and ultimately led to the modern cell theory of biology. You will notice that, unlike the core program courses you took in chemistry and physics, introductory biology does not have many mathematical “laws” and “rules” and does not require much math. Instead, you will learn a great number of new terms and concepts that will help you describe life at the smallest level. Over the course of this semester, you will recognize the ways in which the tiniest of molecules are involved…

1 votes
Saylor.org Free Closed [?] Life Sciences Biology

Welcome to BIO101B, Introduction to Molecular and Cellular Biology.  This course is intended for the student interested in understanding and appreciating common biological topics in the study of the smallest units within biology: molecules and cells. Molecular and cellular biology is a dynamic field.  There are thousands of opportunities within the medical, pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial fields (just to name a few) for a person with a concentrated knowledge of molecular and cellular processes.  This course will give you a general introduction of these topics.  In addition to preparing for a diversity of career paths, an understanding of molecular and cell biology will help you make sound decisions in your everyday life that can positively impact your diet and health. Note that this course is an alternative to BIO101A [1], and that you may choose to take either BIO101A or BIO101B in order to learn about Molecular and Cellular Biology.  These courses cover the same material, but in a slig…

1 votes
Saylor.org Free Closed [?] Life Sciences Biology

This lab course supplements BIO101 [1]: “Introduction to Molecular and Cellular Biology.”  Although we cannot virtually replicate a true lab experience, this “lab” will allow you to become familiar with scientific thinking and techniques and will enable you to explore of some key principles of molecular and cellular biology. The material in this lab supplement directly relates to the material covered in the lecture and reading portion of the course.  While the lecture and reading portion focuses on big-picture concepts, here we will focus more on visual understanding, manipulation, and practical use of your knowledge.  In each unit, you will work through tutorials related to important scientific concepts, and then will be asked to think creatively about how your knowledge can be put to practical or experimental use. There are also activities devoted to learning important techniques in scientific study, including microscope use, DNA extraction, Polymerase Chain Reaction, and DNA microarrays.  A…

1 votes
Saylor.org Free Closed [?] Life Sciences Biology

In BIO101 [1], you were introduced to biology on a microscopic scale when you learned about the functions of molecules, genes, and cells.  In this course, you will learn about biological changes that happen on a very large scale, across entire populations of organisms and over the course of millions of years, in the form of evolution and ecology.  Evolution, the process by which different species of organisms have developed and diversified from their evolutionary forbears, has been a central theme in the field of biology ever since Darwin first published his theories about it.  Mounting evidence from many different branches of science all point to the fact that species have experienced a gradual but definite physical change.  In this course, we will learn about evolution and theories that stem from evolution. We will also learn about ecology, the study of the interactions between different types of organisms and their surroundings.  Changes in surroundings will force organisms to adapt and changeoften…

5 votes
Saylor.org Free Closed [?] Life Sciences Biology

This lab course supplements BIO102: Introduction to Evolutionary Biology and Ecology [1].  Although we cannot virtually replicate a true lab experience, this “lab” will allow you to become familiar with scientific thinking and techniques, and will enable you to explore some key principles of evolutionary biology and ecology. The material in this lab supplement directly relates to the material covered in the lecture and reading portion of the course.  While the lecture and reading portion focuses on big-picture concepts, here we will focus more on visual understanding, application, and practical use of your knowledge.  In each unit, you will work through tutorials related to important scientific concepts and then will be asked to think creatively about how your knowledge can be put to practical or experimental use. [1] http:///courses/bio102/…

10 votes
Saylor.org Free Closed [?] Life Sciences Biology

This course is designed to introduce you to the study of Calculus.  You will learn concrete applications of how calculus is used and, more importantly, why it works.  Calculus is not a new discipline; it has been around since the days of Archimedes.  However, Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz, two 17th-century European mathematicians concurrently working on the same intellectual discovery hundreds of miles apart, were responsible for developing the field as we know it today.  This brings us to our first question, what is today's Calculus?  In its simplest terms, calculus is the study of functions, rates of change, and continuity.  While you may have cultivated a basic understanding of functions in previous math courses, in this course you will come to a more advanced understanding of their complexity, learning to take a closer look at their behaviors and nuances. In this course, we will address three major topics: limits, derivatives, and integrals, as well as study their respective foundations and a…

2 votes
Saylor.org Free Closed [?] Life Sciences Biology

In this course, you will look at the properties behind the basic concepts of probability and statistics and focus on applications of statistical knowledge.  You will learn about how statistics and probability work together.  The subject of statistics involves the study of methods for collecting, summarizing, and interpreting data.  Statistics formalizes the process of making decisions, and this course is designed to help you use statistical literacy to make better decisions.  Note that this course has applications for the natural sciences, economics, computer science, finance, psychology, sociology, criminology, and many other fields. We read data in articles and reports every day.  After finishing this course, you should be comfortable evaluating an author's use of data.  You will be able to extract information from articles and display that information effectively.  You will also be able to understand the basics of how to draw statistical conclusions. This course will begin with descriptive statistic…

1 votes
Saylor.org Free Closed [?] Life Sciences Biology

This chemistry survey is designed to introduce students to the world of chemistry.  The principles of chemistry were first identified, studied, and applied by ancient Egyptians in order to extract metal from ores, make alcoholic beverages, glaze pottery, turn fat into soap, and much more.  What began as a quest to build better weapons or create potions capable of ensuring everlasting life has since become the foundation of modern science.  Take a look around you: chemistry makes up almost everything you touch, see, and feel, from the shampoo you used this morning to the plastic container that holds your lunch.  In this course, we will study chemistry from the ground up, learning the basics of the atom and its behavior.  We will use this knowledge to understand the chemical properties of matter and the changes and reactions that take place in all types of matter.

1 votes
Saylor.org Free Closed [?] Life Sciences Biology

In this second semester course, we will cover a wide-ranging field of topics, learning everything from the equation that made Einstein famous to why you can’t replace a dead car battery with a household battery. In General Chemistry I (CHEM101 [1]), we studied the basic tools you need to explore different fields in chemistry, such as stoichiometry and thermodynamics.  This second-semester course will cover several of the tools needed to study chemistry at a more advanced level.  We will identify the factors that affect the speed of a reaction, learn how an atom bomb works on a chemical level, and discover how chemistry powers a light bulb.  Topics in advanced organic and inorganic chemistry courses will build upon what you learn in this class.  We will end with discussion of organic chemistry, a topic that is as important to biology as it is to chemistry. [1] http:///courses/chem101/…

3 votes
Saylor.org Free Closed [?] Life Sciences Biology

Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that focuses on a single element: carbon!  Carbon bonds strongly with other carbon atoms and with other elements, forming numerous chain and ring structures.  As a result, there are millions of distinct carbon compounds known and classified.  The vast majority of the molecules that contain carbon are considered organic molecules, with few debatable exceptions such as carbon nanotubes, diamonds, carbonate ions, and carbon dioxide.  Carbon is central to the existence of life as it is an essential component of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), sugars, lipids, and proteins.  A well-rounded student of science must take courses in organic chemistry to understand its application to various topics, such as the study of polymers (plastics and other materials), hydrocarbons, pharmaceuticals, molecular biology, biochemistry, and other life sciences. In the first semester of organic chemistry, you will learn the basic concepts needed to understand the three-dimensional structu…

4 votes
Saylor.org Free Closed [?] Life Sciences Biology

This course is a continuation of CHEM103 [1]: Organic Chemistry I.  As you progress through the units below, you will continue to learn the different chemical reactions characteristic of each family of organic compounds.  We will focus on four most important classes of reactions: electrophilic substitution at aromatic rings, nucleophilic addition at carbonyl compounds, hydrolysis of carboxylic acids, and carbon-carbon bond formation using enolates.  The enolate portion of this course will cover the reactivity of functional groups. We will also look at synthetic strategies for making simple, small organic molecules, using the knowledge of organic chemistry accumulated thus far.  At the end of this course, you will possess the tools you need to plan the synthesis of fairly complicated molecules, like those used in pharmaceutics.  From the perspective of a synthetic organic chemist, the two most challenging aspects of synthesizing drug molecules are the incorporation of  "molecular rings" (rings of 5, 6,…

4 votes
Saylor.org Free Closed [?] Life Sciences Biology

Physics 101 is the first course in the Introduction to Physics sequence. In general, the quest of physics is to develop descriptions of the natural world that correspond  closely to actual observations.  Given this definition, the story behind everything in the universe is  one of physics.  In practice,  the field of physics is more often limited to the discovery and refinement of the basic laws that underlie the behavior of matter and energy.  While biology is founded upon physics, in practice, the study of biology generally assumes that the present understanding of physical laws is accurate.  Chemistry is more closely dependent on physics and   assumes that physical laws provide accurate predictions.  Engineering, for the most part, is applied physics. In this course, we will study physics from the ground up, learning the basic principles of physical laws, their application to the behavior of objects, and the use of the scientific method in driving advances in this knowledge.  This first course o…

10 votes
Saylor.org Free Closed [?] Life Sciences Biology

The physics of the universe appears to be dominated by the effects of four fundamental forces: gravity, electromagnetism, weak nuclear forces, and strong nuclear forces.  These forces control how matter, energy, space, and time interact to produce our physical world.  All other forces, such as the force you exert in standing up, are ultimately derived from these fundamental forces. We have direct daily experience with two of these forces: gravity and electromagnetism.  Consider, for example, the everyday sight of a person sitting on a chair.  The force holding the person on the chair is gravitational, and that gravitational force balances with material forces that “push up” to keep the individual in place.  These forces are the direct result of electromagnetic forces on the nanoscale.  On a larger stage, gravity holds the celestial bodies in their orbits, while we see the universe by the electromagnetic radiation (light, for example) with which it is filled.  The electromagnetic force also makes…

8 votes
Saylor.org Free Closed [?] Life Sciences Biology

As you learned in BIO101 [1], the cell is the fundamental unit of life; in fact, the smallest living organisms are composed of a single cell. We have learned that, despite their small size, cells are far from simple, and we have only recently begun to understand just how complex they are. This course will present you with a detailed overview of a cell’s main components and functions. Most of the units will cover topics familiar to you from BIO101, such as mitosis or the cell nucleus, but will explore them in greater depth. The course is organized roughly into four major areas: the cell membrane, cell nucleus, cell cycle, and cell interior. We will approach most of these topics straightforwardly, from a molecular and structural point of view. [1] http://www.saylor.org/courses/bio101a/…

5 votes
Saylor.org Free Closed [?] Life Sciences Advanced Anatomy Anatomy & Physiology Biology Biology & Life Sciences Human biology Science

A thorough understanding of the systems of the body and the ways in which they fit together is imperative for study in many fields of biological inquiry, including medicine, physiology, developmental studies, and biological anthropology.  This course will provide you with an overview of the body from a systemic perspective.  Each unit will focus on one system, or network of organs that work together to perform a particular function.  At the end of this course, we will review the body from an integrative perspective, creating a more realistic vision of the ways in which the systems overlap.  We will also discuss current body imaging techniques and learn how to correctly interpret the images in order to put our newly-gained anatomical knowledge to practical use. This is a terminology-heavy course.  We will identify tissues and organ systems according to their functional and regional contexts, but information concerning the processes by which the tissues and organ systems actually function will be covered…

No votes
Saylor.org Free Closed [?] Life Sciences Biology

This lab course supplements BIO302: Human Anatomy [1].  Although we cannot virtually replicate the lab experience, this “lab” will familiarize you with scientific thinking and techniques and will enable you to explore of some key principles of human anatomy. The material in this lab supplement relates to the material covered in the lecture and reading portion of the course.  While that portion focuses more on large-picture concepts, here we will focus more on visual understanding, manipulation, and practical use of your knowledge.  You will review the anatomy and histology of the organs by using images of models, microscopic slides, and videos on cat and sheep dissections.  Then you will be asked to assess your knowledge, which eventually can be put to practical or experimental use.  Working though this lab supplement, you will realize that you must memorize new terms and locate different structures and organs, which can only be achieved by repetition and practice. Note: This course makes use of…

4 votes
Saylor.org Free Closed [?] Life Sciences Biology

Neurobiology is all about the biology of our nervous system, from the spinal cord to the brainand everything in between. The nervous system allows us to have conscious thoughts, enables us to learn, and gives us voluntary control of our muscles. Our understanding of neuroscience begins with the ancient Egyptians, who practiced surgical drilling to treat certain neurological disorders. The earliest philosophers believed that the heart (not the brain) was the center of consciousness and intelligence. As scientific knowledge matured and developed, philosophers disproved that belief but discovered that there is much more to neurobiology than “the brain.” Researchers found that there are literally hundreds of billions of nerves and other cells that cooperate and share information to make the nervous system work. Accordingly, neurobiology is an extremely complex field of study. This course is designed to provide you with an overview of the most important areas of neurobiological study. We will not pay much…

6 votes
Saylor.org Free Closed [?] Life Sciences Biology

Human physiology is the study of the body’s processes, also known as functions. You already have experience with this subject, because you are a human and perform numerous functions each day to maintain your body’s balance or homeostasis. For example, gas exchange in your lungs provides the body’s cells with adequate oxygen supply needed to survive and carry out metabolic processes. Digestion of food components in your mouth, stomach, and small intestines breaks larger substances into molecules that can be absorbed in the small intestines and used for energy. White blood cells attack foreign bodies, such as bacteria and cells containing viruses to keep you free from infection. As you might expect, an understanding of physiology is paramount if you wish to pursue studies in health care, development, or even behavior. A doctor needs to understand how to relate a urine sample to kidney function. A nurse needs to know the importance of electrocardiogram results and heart activity. A medical laboratory sci…

4 votes
Saylor.org Free Closed [?] Life Sciences Biology

This lab course supplements BIO304: Human Physiology [1].  Although we cannot virtually replicate the lab experience, this “lab” will familiarize you with scientific thinking and techniques and will enable you to explore of some key principles of human physiology. The material in this lab supplement relates to the material covered in the lecture and reading portion of the course.  While the lecture and reading portion focuses on big-picture concepts, here we will focus more on visual understanding, manipulation, and practical use of your knowledge.  You will review the physiology of the organ systems by using images of models, experiments, and videos.  Then you will be asked to assess your knowledge, which eventually can be put to practical or experimental use. Co-requisite: BIO304: Human Physiology [2]. [1] http://www.saylor.org/courses/bio304/ [2] http://www.saylor.org/courses/bio304/…

9 votes
Saylor.org Free Closed [?] Life Sciences Basic Genetics Biology Biology & Life Sciences Genetics Science

Genetics is the branch of biology that studies how traits are passed on from one generation to the next and why there are similarities and differences between related individuals. Prior to the discovery of genes, scientists knew that parents passed something down to their offspring, but they did not know how or what. Gregor Mendel’s famous experiments with peas indicated that certain features, such as pea texture and flower color, are encoded by two sets of traits and that the parental traits can be separated. Decades later, scientists discovered that parents passed down DNA, which was present in chromosomes. Since the discovery of DNA, we have come to appreciate the importance of chromosomes. Genomics is a relatively new field with the bold aim of understanding the function of every single gene in a genome, including the human genome. This field took off with the completion of the first sequenced genome, and after the completion of the Human Genome Project, it has attracted increasing research. Mendelian…

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